Thursday, November 10, 2011



 Origin of the Present System of Education

The origin of the present system of education which is prevalent in this country today can be traced to the beginning of the nineteenth century when a controversy had been raging over the issue whether oriental learning and science should be spread through the medium of Sanskrit, Arabic or Persian or Western sciences and literature be spread through English as the medium of instruction. The Government conducted surveys of the then prevalent systems of education with a view to re-organising education to suit the needs of the times. Consequent on Macaulay's Minute regarding the educational policy of the future, Lord William Bentick's Government issued a communique wherein it was stated " that the great object of the British Government ought to be the promotion of European literature and science among the natives of India; and that all the funds appropriated for the purpose of education alone". The Government Resolution, however, stated that provision should be made for the continuance of schools and colleges where indigenous learning was being imparted.

 Wood's Despatch of 1954 on Education

By 1853 a number of problems concerning education in the country had risen which required immediate solution. As a result of an inquiry made by the Government, Sir Charles Wood, the then Secretary of state, sent a despatch popularly known as Wood's Despatch *3 ) to the Court of the Directors of the East India Company in 1854. The despatch enunciated the aim of education as the diffusion of the Arts, Science, Philosophy and Literature of Europe. It laid down that the study of Indian languages was to be encouraged and that the English language should be taught wherever there was a

1* Macaulay rejected the claims of Arabic and Sanskrit as against English, because he considered that English was better than either of them. See alio S. N. Mukherji, History of Education in India, 1966, P.70.
2* Resolution of March 7, 1835.
3* The Despatch was considered to be the " Magna Carta of Education of in India". It was the first authoritative declaration on the part of the British Parliament about the educational policy to be followed in India.
demand for it, and that both English and the Indian Languages were to be regarded the media for the diffusion of European knowledge; a scheme to establish universities was to be formulated, whose functions were to hold examinations and corder degrees. The despatch also recommended that a number of high schools should-be set up4. This eventually led to the establishment in the country of the first three universities in 1857. *5

 The Education Commission of 1882

In 1882 the Government of India appointed a Commission, known as the Hunter Commission, "to enquire into the manner in which, effect had been given to the principles of the Despatch of 1854 and to suggest such measures as it may think desirable in order to further carrying out of the policy therein laid down". The Commission, inter alia, recommended the gradual withdrawal of the State from the direct support and management of institutions of higher education. With regard to vocational and technical education, the Commission recommended that in the particular class of high schools there should be two avenues, one leading to the entrance examination of the University and the other of a more practical character intended to fit the youth for commercial, vocational and non-literary pursuits. *6

 The Universities Commission of 1902

The recommendations of the Hunter Commission led to a rapid expansion of higher education during the next two decades, giving rise to problems which necessitated the appointment of a Commission on January 27, 1902, "to enquire into the condition and prospects of the universities established in British India; to consider and report upon any proposals which have been, or may be made for improving their constitution and working, and to recommend such measures as may tend to elevate the standard of university teaching, and to promote the advancement of learning". The Commission recommended the reorganisation of university administration; a much

4. Report of the University Education Commission, 1948-49, Vol. I, PP. 17-18.
5. These were the Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
6. Report of the University Education Commission, Vol. I, op. cit., pp. 20-21. see also Report of the Secondary Education Commission, op. cit. P. II
In spite of the specific recommendations of the Commission for fitting the youth for-commercial, vocational or non-literary pursuits, neither the public nor the Government seem to have appreciated the value of suggestions with the result that the recommendations were Practically ignored.
more strict and systematic supervision of the colleges by the uni- versity; and the imposition of more exacting conditions of affiliation; a much closer attention to the conditions under which students live and work; the assumption of teaching functions by the university within defined limits; substantial changes in curricula and in the methods of examination. As a result of the recommendations of this Commission secondary schools came to be more under the domination of the Universities: under the Indian Universities Act of 1904, schools had to be recognised by the Universities, and rules and regulations were framed for this purpose *7.

 Government Resolution on Educational policy in 1913

There was a growing popular demand in the country for mass education. A Government Resoultion *8 on education policy was issued in 1913, enunciating three cardinal principles:
(i) that the standard of existing institutions should be raised in preference to increasing their number;
(ii) that the scheme of primary and secondary education for the average scholar should be steadily diverted to more practical ends; and
(iii) that-provision should be made for higher studies and research in India, so that Indian students might get enough facilities for higher work without having to go. abroad.
Though the Resolution was immediately carried into effect, the out break of the World War I delayed the developments planned in the Resolution. However, some new universities were established. *9

 The Calcutta University Commission of 1917

The next important stage was the appointment of the Calcutta University Commission in 1917 under the Chairmanship of the late Sir Michael Sadler. This Commission went into the question of secondary education and held the view that the improvement of

7 Report of the University Education Commission, Vol. I, op. cit., pp. 22-23 and Report of the Secondary Education Commission, op. cit., pp. 11-12. See also Mukherji, cit. pp. 167-68.
8 The Government of India passed the Resolution on February 21, 1913.
9 Mukherji, op. cit., PP. 187, 188 and 189.
secondary education was essential for the improvement of University education. The Commission made the following important re- commendations:
(i) The dividing line between the University and Secondary courses should properly be drawn at the Intermediate examination than at the Matriculation Examination.
(ii) The Government should, therefore, create a new type of institution called the intermediate colleges which would provide for instruction in Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering and Teaching etc; these colleges were to be run as independent institutions or to be attached to selected high schools.
(iii) The admission test' for universities should be the passing of the Intermediate examination.
(iv) A Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education, consisting of the representatives of Government, Univer- sity, High Schools and Intermediate Colleges be estab- lished and entrusted with the administration and control of Secondary Education.
The Sadler Commission Report was a comprehensive one and many of the universities in India implemented its suggestions. It was also for the first time that a Commission had recommended the attachment of Intermediate Classes to the high schools and the setting up of a Board of Education to control High School and Intermediate Education. *10

 The Hartog Committee

In 1929, an Auxiliary Committee of the Indian Statutory Com- mission, known as the Hartog Committee after its Chairman Sir Philip Hartog was appointed to review the position of education in the country. In the opinion of this Committee. the Matriculation of the University still dominated the whole of the secondary course. In order to obviate this defect, the Committee recommended that a large number of pupils intending to follow certain avocation should stop at the middle school stage and there should be "more diversified curricula in the schools". The Committee also recommended diversion of more boys to industrial and commercial careers at the

10 Report of the Secondary Education Commission, op. cit. pp. 12-13.
end of the middle stage, preparatory to special instruction in techni- cal and industrial schools". The Committee also reviewed the problems relating to the training of teachers and the service conditions of the secondary teachers".

 The Sapru Committee

The Sapru Committee appointed in 1934 by the U.P. Government to enquire into the causes of unemployment in U.P. came to the conclusion that the system of education commonly prevalent prepared pubils only for examinations and degrees and not for any avocation in life. The Committee suggested that-
(i) diversified courses at the secondary stage should be introduced, one of these leading to the University degree;'
(ii) the intermediate stage be abolished and the secondary stage be extended by one year;
(iii) the vocational training and education should begin after the lower secondary stage; and
(iv) the Degree course at the University should extend over a period of three years. *12

 The Abbot-Wood Report, 1936-37

In prusuance of the Resolution of 1935 of the Central-Advisory Board of Education (an advisory body set up in 1921), two expert advisers, Messrs. Abbot and Wood were invited in 1936 to advise the Government "on certain problems of educational reorganisation and particularly on problems of vocational education". The Abbot-Wood Report, submitted in 1937, suggested a complete hierarchy of vocational institutions parallel with the hierarchy of institutions imparting general education.
As a result of their recommendations "a new type of technical institution called the Polytechnic has come into existence". The provinces also started technical, commercial or agricultural high -schools conducting non-literary courses *14.

11 Ibid., P. 13.
12 Ibid., PP. 13-14.
13 Messrs. A. Abbor, formerly Chief inspector of Technical Schools, Board of Education, England and S. H. Wood, Director of intelligence, Board of Education, England.
14 Ibid., Report of the Secondary Education, Lawmission op. cit. pp. 14-15.

 Zakir Hussain Committee's Report

In 1937, the Congress Ministry assumed responsibility of administration in seven major Provinces of India and concentrated their attention on educational reforms. In October 1937, an all-India National Educational Conference was summoned at Wardha under the presidentship of Mahatma Gandhi and the following resolutions were adopted:
1. That in the opinion of this conference free and compulsory education be provided for seven years on a nation-wide scale;
2. That the medium of instruction be the mother- tongue;
3. That the conference endorses the proposal made by Mahatma Gandhi that the process of education throughout this period should centre around some form of manual and productive work, and that all other abilities to be developed or training to be given should, as far as possible, be integrally related to the central handicraft chosen with due regard to the environment of the child; and
4. That the conference expects that this system of education will be gradually able to cover the remuneration of teachers.
The conference then appointed a committee 'with Dr. Zakir Hussain as its chairman. The Committee submitted its report on December 2, 1937, and the scheme of education suggested by it is popularly known as the "Wardha Scheme", the main features of which are as follows-
(i) A Basic Craft is to serve as the centre of instruction. The idea is not to teach some handicraft side by side with liberal education, but the entire education is to be imparted through some industry or vocation;
(ii) The scheme is to be self-supporting to the extent of covering teachers' salaries and aims at makng pupils self-supporting after the completion of their course;
(iii) Manual labour is insisted on so that every individual may learn to earn his living through it in liter life. It is also considered non-violent, since an individual does not snatch away the living of others with the help of a machine; and
(iv) Instruction is closely coordinated with the child's life, i.e., his home and village crafts and occupations.",

 The Sargent Report

In 1944, the Central Advisory Board of Education submitted a comprehensive Report on Post-War Educational Development, known as the Sargent Report, visualising a system of universal, compulsory and free education for all boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 14, the Senior Basic or the Middle School to be the final stage in the school career of majority of the pupils. The Report also recommended that at the Middle School stage, provision should be made for a variety of courses, extending over a period of five years after the age of 11. These courses while preserving an essentially cultural character should be designed to prepare the pupils for entry into industrial and commercial occupations as well as into the Universities. It was recommended that the High School course should cover 6 years, the normal age of admission being 11 years and that the High Schools should be of two main types (a) academic, and (b) technical. The objective of both should be to provide a good all-round education combined with some preparation in the later stages for the careers which pupils will pursue on leaving schools.16

 The University Education Commission of 1948

The era of educational reconstruction inevitably followed in the wake of social and economic reconstruction initiated by the National Government after 1947, education being the chief instrument for reconstruction and transformation of society. The first steps taken in the direction of educational reconstruction were the appointment of a series of commissions to survey, study, review and recommend improvements in the different sectors of education.
To look into the problems of University education, the University Education Commission was appointed by the Government of India in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan in pursuance of the recommendations of the Central Advisory Board of Education and also of the Inter-University Board. The Commission made important suggestions for improving the standard of university education in the country. Introduction of a three-year degree course for the first university degree, greater use of tutorial system of instruction, formulation of new aims, emphasis on developing know-

15 See also Mukerji, op. cit., pp. 218-19. 16 Report of the Secondary Education Commission, op. cit., p. 15.
ledge and critical thinking rather than mechanical passing of exami- nations, establishment of Rural Universities and introduction of moral education were some of its salient recommendations. The Commission, however, thought it unfortunate that neither the public nor the Government had realised the importance of Intermediate Colleges in the Indian educational systems. To coordinate University Education in the country, the establishment of the University Grants Commission was also recommeided. *17 The Commission came into being immediately there after.

 The Secondary Education Commission, 1952

The Radhakrishnan Commission had surveyed the field of secondary education in a passing manner and had admitted that 'our secondary education remains the weakest link in our educational machinery and needs urgent reform' *18. This fact was the raison d'etre of an All India Commission for Secondary Education appointed in 1952 under the Chairmanship of Dr. A. Lakshmanswamy Mudaliar. This Commission offered a numbers of suggestions to adjust secondary education with the new goals and needs of free India. The aim was now to train our youth for intermediate leadership and for democratic citizenship. Secondary education was to be a terminal stage for a large majority of the nation's youth, who would take up their places in society after their school education and provide leadership to the general masses. The Commission was equally concerned with qualitative improvement of the schools. To develop individual talent, curricular offerings were extended and diversified. To achieve the new aims of education, changes in methods of teaching were suggested. New trends in examination, guidance and extra curricular work were brought into the school programmes. Multipurpose secondary school was a new concept recommended by the Commission. Inclusion of craft, social studies and general science in the curriculum was aimed at orienting students towards an industrial and science-centred democratic life.


In view of the important rote of education in the national development and in building up a truly democratic society the Government considered it necessary to survey and examine the entire field of education in order to realise a well balanced, integrated and adequate system of national education capable of making a powerful contribution to all aspects of national life. To achieve these objectives speedily, the Government of India in October 1964, set up an Education Commission, under Resolution of July 14, 1964.
The Commission in particular was to advise the Government on the national pattern of education and on the general policies for the Development of education at all stages-ranging from the primary to post-graduate stage and in all its aspects besides examining a host of educational problems in their social and economic context. The Commission was, however, not to examine legal and medical education. *1
The Commission, tinder the chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari, Chairman. University Grants Commission, consisted of sixteen members. eleven being Indians and five foreign experts. *2 in addition, the Commission had the benefit of discussion with and advice of a number of internationally known consultants in the educational as well as scientific field. *3
The Commission began its task on October 2, 1964, and submitted its report on June 29, 1966 to the Union Education Minister.
The Commission set up 12 Task Forces and 7 Working Groups. The 'Task Forces' were set up on the following:
(i) School Education;

1 See the Resolution of the Government of India, setting up the Education Commission-No. 41/3(3)/64-EI. Ministry of Education, July 14, 1964. For full text of the Resolution, see Appendix I.
2 For details see Appenix I.
3 For details see Appendix II.
(ii) Higher Education;
(iii) Technical Education;
(iv) Agricultural Education;
(v) Adult Education;
(vi) Science Education and Research;
(vii) Teacher Training and Teacher Status;
(viii) Student Welfare;
(ix) New Techniques and Methods;
(x) Manpower;
(xi) Educational Administration, and
(xii) Educational Finance.
The 'Working Groups' were set up on the following:
(i) Women's, Education;
(ii) Education of Backward Classes;
(iii) School Buildings;
(iv) School Community Relations;
(v) Statistics;
(vi) Pre-Primary Education; and
(vii) School Curriculum.


 A. Education and National Objectives

Education and National Development: The most important and urgent reform needed in education is. to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the people and thereby make it a powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation necessary for realisation of the national goal. For this purpose the following fivefold programme has been suggested:
(a) Relating education to productivity;
(b) Strengthening social and national integration through educational programmes;
(c) Consolidation of democracy through education;
(d) Development of social, moral and spriritual values; and
(e) Modernisation of society through awakening of curiosity, development of attitudes and values and building up certain essential skills.
(a) Education and Productivity: The following programmes are needed to relate productivity to education:
(i) Science education should be an integral part of school education and ultimately become a part of all courses at University stage;
(ii) Work experience to become an integral part of all education;
(iii) Every effort should be made to orient work experience to, technology and industrialisation and the application of science to productive processes, including agriculture; and
(iv) Vocationalisation of secondary education and agricultural and technical education to be emphasized.
(b) Social and National Integration: The following steps have been suggested to strengthen national consciousness and unity:
(i) Adoption of a common school system of public education as the national goal and its effective implementation in a phased programme spread over 20 years;
(ii) Organisation of social and national service programmes concurrently with academic studies in schools and colleges and to make them obligatory for all students at all stages;
(iii) Participation in programmes of community development and national reconstruction should be an integral part of all education from the primary to the undergraduate stage;
(iv) Continuance of N.C.C. on its present basis till the end of the Fourth Five Year Plan;
(v) Development of an appropriate language policy for the education system;
(vi) Adoption of regional language as the medium of instructions;
(vii) Energetic action for production of books and literature, particularly scientific and technical, in regional languages This should be the responsibility of universities-assisted by U. G. C.
(viii) Continuance of the use of English as the medium of instructions in the All-India institutions. The eventual adoption of Hindi to be considered in due course subject to certain safeguards;
(ix) Regional languages to be made language of administration for the regions concerned at the earliest possible time;
(x) Continuation of the promotion of the teaching and study of English right from-the school stage. Special attention to be given to the study of Russian;
(xi) English language to serve as a link-language in higher education for academic work and intellectual inter-communication. Hindi to serve as the link language of the majority of our people and also adoption of all measures for the spread of Hindi in non-Hindi areas;
(xii) Combining two modern Indian languages at the B.A. and M.A. level; and EDUCATION ABSTRACTS SECTION
(xiii) Promotion of national consciousness through the promotion of understanding and re-valuation of our cultural heritage and the creation of a strong driving faith in the future towards which we aspire.
(c) Education for Democracy: The following programme has. been suggested for consolidation of democracy:
(i) Provision of free and compulsory education of good quality for all children upto the age of 14 years as envisaged in Art. 45 of the Constitution;
(ii) Promotion of programmes of adult education aiming not only at liquidation of illiteracy, but also at raising the civic and vocational efficiency and general cultural level of the citizens;
(iii) Training of efficient leadership at all levels by expanding secondary and higher education and providing equal opportunities for all children of merit and promise, irrespective of economic status, caste, religion, sex or place of residence; and
(iv) Development of a scientific mind and outlook, tolerance, concern for public interest and public service, self-discipline, self reliance, initiative, and a positive attitude to work.
(d) Social, Moral and Spiritual Values: The education system should emphasise the development of fundamental, social, moral and spiritual values. From this point of view the Centre and State Governments should adopt measures to introduce education in moral, social and spiritual values in all institutions under their (or local authority) control on the lines recommended by the University Education Commission and the Committees on Religious and Moral Instruction.
(e) Education and Modernisation: The following has been sug- gested in this regard:
(i) Awakening of curiosity, the development of proper interest, attittudes and values and the building up of such essential skills as independent study and capacity to think and judge for oneself; and
(ii) Creation of an intelligentsia of adequate size and compentence. *1

1* Report of the Education, Commission. op. cit pp. 6-21.

 B. The Educational System: Structure and Standard

(1) Stages in Education and their Inter-relationship: In this regard the following has been suggested:
(i) The new educational system should consist of (a) one to three years of pre-schools education; (b) a primary stage of 7 to 8 years divided into lower primary stage of 4 to 5 years and a higher primary stage of 3 or 2 years; (c) a lower secondary stage of 3 or 2 years; (d) a higher secondary stage of two years of general education or one to 3 years of vocational education; (e) a higher education stage having a course of 3 years or more for the first degree and followed by course for the second or research degree of varying durations;
(ii) Age of admission to Class I ordinary not to be less than 6;
(iii) First public examination to come at the end of 10 years of schooling;
(iv) Secondary schools should be of two types-high schools providing a ten-year course and higher secondary schools providing a course of 11 to 12 years;
(v) New Higher Secondary course beginning in Class XI and XII to provide specialised subjects; and
(vi) Transfer of the Pre-University Course from the Universities and affiliated colleges to-secondary schools by 1975-76 and the duration of the course to be lengthened to two years by 1985-86. The University Grants Commission should be responsible for effecting the transfer of all pre-university or intermediate work from university and affilitated colleges to schools.
(2) Reorganisation of the University Stage: The following has been recommended in this respect:
(i) Duration of the first degree should not be less than three years and the duration of the second degree to be 2 or 3 years;
(ii) Some universities should start graduate schools with 3 year Master Degree courses in certain subjects; and
(iii) Three-year special courses for the first degree which begin at the end of the first year of the present 3-year degree
courses should be started in selected subjects and in selected institutions.
(3) Utilisation of Facilities: The following methods have been suggested to make full utilisation of available facilities:
(i) Instructional days in the year to be increased to about 39 weeks for schools and 36 weeks for colleges and pre-primary schools; and
(ii) Standard calendar to be worked out by the Ministry of Education and the University Grants Commission in consultation with the State Governments and Universities respectively. Other holidays to be cut down to 10 in a year. *2

 C. Teacher Status

The Commission has emphasised that the most urgent need was to upgrade the remuneration of teachers substantially, particularly at the school stage, and recommended that the Government of India should lay down. for the school stage, minimum scales of pay for teachers and assist the States and Union Territories to adopt equivalent or higher scales to suit their conditions. Scales of pay of school teachers belonging to the same category but working under different managements such as government, local bodies -- private managements should be the same. *3

 D. Teacher Education

The professional preparedness of teachers being crucial for the qualitative improvement of education, the Commission has urged hat this should be treated as a key-area in educational development and adequate financial provision should be made for it. It further recommended:
(i) In order to make the professional preparation of teachers effective, teacher education must 'be brought into the mainstream of the academic life of the Universities, on the one hand, and of the school life and educational development, on the other;

2 Ibid pp. 23-45.
3 Ibid PP. 46-66.
The Commission proposed certain scales of Pay for teachers to be implemented in a phased programme over a period of five years.
(ii) The quality of the programme of teacher education should be improved:
(iii) New professional courses should be developed to orientate headmasters teachers educators and educational administrators to their special field of work;
(iv) The post-graduate courses in education should be flexible and be planned to promote an academic and scientific study of education and to prepare personnel for special fields of education requiring special knowledge and initiation; and
(v) Improvement of teacher education institutions and expansion of training facilities should be undertaken. *4

 E. Towards Equalisation of Educational Opportunity

Observing that every attempt should be made to equalise edu- cational opportunities or at least to reduce some of the most glaring inequalities which now exist the Commission has stressed the need for the following programmes:
(i) The development of a common school system of public education in which no fees would be charged, where access to good schools will be open to all children on the basis of merit, and where the standard maintained would be high enough to make the average parent feel no need to send his child to an independent institution;
(ii) The development of adequate programmes of student- Service at all stages which will include free supply of books and writing materials at the primary stage. the provision of book banks and text-books libraries in all institutions of secondary and higher education, the provision of transport. day-study centres or hostels, and the institution of guidance facilities and health services;
(iii) The development of a large programme of scholarships at all stages and in all sectors combined with a programme of placement and maintenance of quality institutions, to ensure that the brighter children at least will have access to good education and that their further education will not be handicapped on economic grounds;
4 Ibid., pp. 67-89.
(iv) Special encouragement to the education of girls and the backward classes;
(v) The reduction of imbalances in educational development between the different parts of the country- districts and States; and
(vi) The development of a comparatively small but effective programme for the education of the handicapped children.*5

 F. School Education Curriculum

(1) Essentials of Curricular Improvement For the improvement and upgrading of school curricula, the following measures have been suggested:
(1). Essentials of Curricular Improvement: For the improvement taken by university Departments of Education, training, colleges, State Institutes of Education and Boards of School Education; (b) Revision of curricula should be based on such research; (c) Basic to the success of any attempt at curriculum improvement is the preparation of text-books and teaching-learning materials; and (d) The orientation of teachers to the revised curricula through in-service be achieved through seminars and refresher courses.
(ii) Schools should be given the freedom to devise and experiment with new curricula suited to their needs. A lead should be given in the matter of training colleges and universities through their experimental schools;
(iii) Advanced curricula should be prepared by State Boards of School Education in all subjects and introduced in a phased manner in schools which fulfil certain conditions of staff and facilities;
(iv) The formation of Subject Teachers' Associations for the different school subjects will help to stimulate experimentation and in upgrading of curricula.
(2) Study of Languages: The following has been suggested for the study of languages at school stage:
(i) The language study at the school stage needs review and a new policy requires to be formulated particularly in view of the fact that English has been mostly used as an associated official language of the country for an indefinite period:
(ii) The modification of the language formula should be guided by the following principles:
(a) Hindi as the official language of the Union enjoys an importance next only to that of the mother tongue.
(b) A workable knowledge of English will continue to be an asset to student.
(c) The proficiency gained in a language depends as much upon the types of teachers and facilities as upon the length of time in which it is learnt.
(d) The most suitable stage for learning these languages is the lower secondary (Classes VIII-X).
(e) The introduction of two additional languages should be staggered.
(f) Hindi or English should be introduced at a point where there is greatest motivation and need.
(g) At no stage should the learning of four languages be made compulsory.
(3) Three Language Formula : The modified Three-Language Formula should include the following:
(i) The mother-tongue or the regional language;
(ii) The official language of the Union or the associate official language of the Union so long as it exists; and
(iii) A modern Indian or Foreign Language not covered under (a) and (b) and other than that used as the medium of instruction. *6



The Government of India, ever since the attainment of indepen- dence, have given considerable attention to the development of a national system of education rooted in the basic values and the cherished traditions of the Indian nation and suited to the needs and aspirations of a modern society. While some advances have been made in these directions, the educational system has not generally evolved in accordance with the needs of the times, and a wide and distressing gulf continues to persist between thought and action in several sectors of this crucial field of national activity. In view of the important role of education in the economic and social development of the country, in the building of a truly democratic society, in the promotion of national integration and unity, and above all, for the transformation of the individual in the endless pursuit of excellence and perfection, it is now considered imperative to survey and examine the entire field of education in order to realize within the shortest possible period a well balanced, integrated and adequat system of national education capable of making a powerful contribution to all spheres of national life.
(2) The attainment of independence ushered in a new era of national development founded upon the adoption of a secular democracy, not only as form of Government but also as a way of life; the determination to eliminate the poverty of the people and to ensure a reasonable standard of living, for all, through modernization of agri- culture and rapid development of industry; the adoption of modem science and technology and their harmonizing with traditional spiritual values; the acceptance of a socialistic pattern of society which will secure equitable distribution of wealth and equality of opportunity for all in education, employment and cultural advancement. Greater emphasis came to be placed on educational development because of the realization that education, especially in science and technology, is the most powerful instrument of social transformation and economic progress and that the attempt to create a new social order based on freedom, equality and justice can only succeed if the traditional educational system was revolutionized, both in content and extent.
* No F. 41/3 (3)/64-E. I. Ministry of Education, Government of India, New Delhi, the 14th of July, 1964 as finally modified.
(3) Quantitatively, education at all levels has shown a phenome- nal development in the post-independence period. In spite of this ex- pansion, however, there is widespread dissatisfaction about Several aspect of educational development. For instance, it has not been possible to provide free and universal education for all children up to 14 Years of age. The problem of mass illiteracy continues to be immense. It has not been possible to raise standards adequately at the secondary and university stages. The diversification of curricula in secondary and higher education has not kept pace with the times so that the problem of educated unemployment has been intensified on the one hand while, on the other, there is an equally acute shortage of trained manpower in several sectors. The remuneration and service conditions of teachers leave a great deal to be desired; and several important academic problems are still matters of intense controversies. In short, qualitative improvements in education have not kept pace with quantitative expansion, and national policies and programmes concerning the quality of education, even when these were Well conceived and generally agreed to, could not be implemented satisfactorily.
(4) The Government of India are convinced that education is the to national prosperity and welfare and that no investment is likely to yield greater returns than investment in human resources of which the most important component is education. Government have also decided to mobilize all the resources of science and technology which can only be done on the foundation of good and progressive education and to that end, to increase considerably their total investment in the development of education and scientific research. The nation must be prepared to pay for quality in education, and from the value attached to education by all sectors of the people it is clear 'that they will do so willingly.
(5) It is desirable to survey the entire field of educational development as the various parts of the educational system strongly interact with and influence one another. It is not possible to have progressive and strong universities without efficient secondary schools and the quality of these schools is determined by the functioning of elemntary schools. What is needed, therefore, is a synoptic survey and an imaginative look at education considered as a whole and not fragmented into parts and stages. In the past, several commissions and committees have examined limited sectors and specific aspects of education. It is now proposed to have a comprehensive review of the entire educational system.
(6) While the planning of education for India must necessarily emanate from Indian experience and conditions, Government of
India are of the opinion that it would be advantageous to draw upon the experience and thinking of educationists and scientists from other parts of the world in the common enterprise of seeking for the right type of education which is the quest of all mankind, specially at this time when the world is becoming closely knit together in so many ways. It has, therefore, been decided to associate with the Commission either as members or as consultants, some eminent scientists and educationists from other countries. The United Nations' Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation has provided three members for the Commission viz., Mr. Jean Thomas, Inspector General of Education, France, and formerly Assistant Director General of UNESCO, Prof. Shumovsky, Director, Methodological Division, Ministry of Higher and Special Secondary Education, RSFSR, Moscow, and Professor of Physics, Moscow University, and Prof. Sadatoshi Thara, Professor of the First Faculty of Science and Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo, who have since joined the Commission. It is expected that the collaboration of some eminent scientists, and educationists as consultants, with the work of the Commission, will also be forthcoming. Negotiations are in progress with some more specialists and additions of names of foreign consuLtants will be notified from time to time. In addition, the Commission has been authorized to invite from time to time such other consultants in India in relation to any aspect of its enquiry as it may consider necessary.
(7) For the purposes outlined in the foregoing paragraphs, Government of India have decided to set up an Education Commission consisting of the following members:-


1. Prof. D. S. Kothari, Chairman, University Grants Commission. New Delhi.
2. Sir A. R. Dawood, Former Director, Extension Programmes for Secondary Education, New Delhi.
3. Mr. H. L. Elvin, Director, Institute of Education, University of London London.
4. Shri R A. Gapalaswami, Director, Institute of Applied Manpower Research, Now Delhi.
5. Dr. V. S. Jha, Former Director of the Commonwealth Education Liaison Unit in London.
6. Shri P. N. Kirpal, Educational Adviser to the Government of India, New Delhi.
7. Prof. M. V. Mathur, Professor of Economics and Public Administration, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
8. Dr. B. P. Pal, Director, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi.
9. Kumari S. Panandikar, Head of the Department of Education, Karnatak University, Dharwar.
10. Prof. Rogar Revelle, Dean of Research, University of California, U.S.A.
11. Dr. K. G. Saiyidain, Former Educational Adviser to the Government of India, New Delhi.
12. Dr. T. Sen, Rector, Jadavpur University, Calcutta.
13. Mr. Jean Thomas, Inspector General of Education, France, and formerly, Assistant Director-General of UNESCO.
14. Prof. S. A. Shumovsky, Director, Methodological Division, Ministry of Higher and Special Secondary Education, RSFSR, Moscow, and Professor of Physics, Moscow University.
15. Prof. Sadatoshi Ihara, Professor of the First Faculty of Science & Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo.


16. Shri J. P. Naik, Head of the Department of Educational Planning, Administration & Finance, Gokhale Institute of Politics & Economics, Poona.


17. Mr. J. F. McDougall, Assistant Director, Department of School and Higher Education, UNESCO, Paris.
(8) The Commission will advise Government on the national pattern of education and on the general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages and in all its aspects. It need not however, examine the problems of medical or legal education, but such aspects of these problems as are necessary for its com- prehensive enquiry may be looked into.
(9) The Commission will submit its final report as early as pos- sible and not later than the 31st March, 1966. Where immediate implementation of certain programmes is necessary the Commission may also submit, from time to time, interim reports dealing with limited sectors on problems of education. Government are anxious that the implementation of agreed recommendations about specific matters of importance shall on no account be held up until the completion of the Commission's work. On the other hand, its expert advice and guidance should be continuously, available to those charged with the responsibility for implementing educational programmes and policies.

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